Having studied in detail all possible intercultural theories, we are ready to synthesize them in a convenient format.
Without discarding the experience of any of the significant researchers of intercultural communication and intercultural management, we began to look for a model that would help not divide, but unite cultures, placing greater emphasis on their interaction.
In an attempt to reinvent the wheel, we came to Aristotle's "Rhetoric", in which he, of course, does not talk about intercultural communication, but which, apparently, inspired many researchers of cross-cultural topic.
Having examined his model again, relying on it, we were finally able to synthesize everything that was published earlier and determine what was important, what was missing. We named this model La Classe "Agora" and will develop it further.
Agora is the "market square", the place where agreements are made. The introduction of this concept gives us that piece of the puzzle that makes up a complete picture, helps us understand not how to divide, but how to unite cultures, build successful points of interaction, a roadmap to agree on the level of local business negotiations and major national debates.
We decided to keep the definitions of Aristotle's concept. First, because it is beautiful. Secondly, because we consider it inappropriate to rename again what is the essential. In addition, as already mentioned, our global goal is not to reinvent a wheel, but to synthesize the voluminous cumulative experience of all respected experts.
Logos, Paphos, Ethos in the context of intercultural communication.
In his "Rhetoric" Aristotle identified three main ways of persuading people: Ethos, Paphos and Logos. It is easy to expand this model to intercultural, as well as to narrow any intercultural model to interregional. In fact, any of the proposed intercultural theories can be easily applied to the regions of the country, and sometimes to the areas of one city, when we need to highlight the features of Paris and Marseille, north and south.
Logos (Logos (from ancient Greek λόγος - word, thought, meaning, concept, number) is a concept of ancient Greek philosophy, meaning both "word" (statement, speech) and "concept" (judgment, meaning).)
Logos: an appeal to reason. (Germany, Switzerland, Holland, Norway, Great Britain, Finland, etc.)
At this apex of the triangle we will assign monochronic cultures, the Nordic Countries, for which it is obvious that the message needs to make sense, or at least seem logical.
These are countries with the rule of law, a high level of trust, an unquestioning separation of positions of the systems of freedoms and human rights, and according to Lefebvre, countries that adhere to the classic model of "compromise is good."
To upgrade the Logos in oneself, it is necessary to develop logical thinking and “procedural”.
How to do it?
1. Learn to write texts according to the laws of classical composition (Introduction, main part, conclusion. One thought follows from another. The correct order of words in sentences is observed.) Include lists, make tables, systematize knowledge, break into paragraphs.
2. Learn logical argumentation, but not with the aim of confusing the interlocutor, but on the contrary, the classical one, where you should present your arguments in a logical order, which should be so simple and rational that it cannot be given any alternative. According to the laws of logic, steps should follow each other so naturally that the audience independently draws the only possible logical conclusion before you name it. In order to pump this skill in a game format, the NeuroNation application offers many games.
3. To develop Epileptoid personality traits according to Ponomarenko-Filatov.
Paphos (Greek πάθος "suffering, passion, excitement, inspiration"), or pathology (Greek παθητικός "sensitive, passionate, ardent, excited") is a method of addressing the emotions of the audience.
Paphos: an appeal to emotions. (Brazil, Chile, Italy, Portugal, Spain, India, France, Russia, Greece, etc.).
On the intercultural map, at this vertex of the triangle, we will place polychronic cultures, multi-active, for which multitasking is natural and necessary. According to Leferv, the ethical system “compromise is evil”. Most often, a low level of trust in society leads to a special kind of understanding of human rights and freedoms.
One of the most famous examples of Paphos is “I have a dream” - a speech by Martin Luther King, in which he proclaimed his vision of a future where whites and blacks would have equal civil rights. The power of this speech lies in the constant borrowing, in the creative, and not the logical, power of the narrative. Constructed as a sermon with references to the Bible, the speech should have a special impact on most Americans, as well as references to American history and documents. But the main thing is that everyone understands a reference to the American Dream.
To pump Paphos - it is necessary to develop emotional intelligence and the style of information presentation described above (Let's call it "I have a dream"))).
How to do it?
1. To pump up emotional intelligence and learn to address the emotions of the audience. Make them feel what you want them to feel by triggering certain emotional responses.
Developed Emotional Intelligence will give an understanding that the meaning of Paphos is not in a roller coaster, but in determining the dominant emotion that the listener needs and which will definitely lead him to a state of interest.
2. Train creative thinking, team spirit, try to join the team and become its soul. Use dictionaries of metaphors, analogies, appeal to the imagination of your audience, tell stories from life.
Non-verbal communication should be active. Remember to make eye contact with your audience and match your gestures with emotion.
3. From the perspective of Profiling, it is useful to familiarize yourself with the concept of Hypertime and strengthen the basic qualities of this radical.
Ethos (Greek ἦθος "disposition, character, mental disposition") - the concept of "ethos" gave rise to the concepts of ethics and ethology.
Ethos: form of behavior, observance of the hierarchy. (Japan, Korea, China, Thailand, Indonesia, India, Singapore, etc.)
Here we include societies with a dominant Confucian system, highly contextual cultures.
At the same time, a narrow focus of activity, concentration on one task, here and now, is important.
The priority is to respect authority, expertise, specific knowledge, profession through purposefulness as the main feature of human activity.
This system is most adequate to designate an intermediate level between variegated morals (Paphos) - and the rules themselves (Logos), existence - and ought. Its stability is based on a reasonable style of behavior, an orientation towards culture, the hierarchy of values adopted in it, the human need to recognize the moral order in the world, even if it does not agree well with the everyday experience of people.
Existing in this system of social relationships, it is important to understand your place in this system. The cleaning lady in the store will never answer the customer's question where the bread department is. She will ask you to wait and call the manager of the hall. Even if he knows perfectly well where the required department is located.
To pump Ethos, one should learn active listening and revealing respect for the hierarchy.
How to do it?
1. Practice pause for five seconds before speaking. Monitor the reaction of the interlocutor, take care of preserving his face.
2. Learn “bragging” a bit. Draw up a list of achievements in one area and constantly work on expanding it. For example, Anastasia is engaged in intercultural communication. She has written such and such a number of articles on this topic, followed by a list of speeches at institutes, lectures for such and such companies - this is a genuine and ethical way to gain trust. This list does not need to be boasted, but it should be available.
3. Pump up Emotion. Between two speakers with the same accomplishments and powers, people tend to trust someone with whom they can communicate on a deeper level.
So we come to the main point. What is the novelty of our model? Logos, Paphos and Ethos - these three systems are deeply interconnected and work best together.
The meaning and novelty of our model is precisely to offer a common platform, to help unite the most important functions, pump them up, and develop skills inherent in opposite systems.
Agora is a place where cultures agree.
Agora (ancient Greek ἀγορά) - a market square in ancient Greek policies, which was a place of general civil meetings. The square, usually located in the center of the city, contained the main city market (divided into "circles" according to various types of goods) and often government offices.
Agora, as a rule, was also surrounded by galleries with artisan workshops and temples.
Sometimes statues were erected along the perimeter of the Agora. Very often, the Agora was the administrative and economic center of the city. In the Agora, the current legislation of the policy, the most important decrees and other official decrees carved in stone were publicly exhibited.
Rules of the Agora, the observance of which helps to agree:
Work on strengthening your reputation, develop deep knowledge in topics that a person is professionally engaged in.
Using pre-collection of information about culture: What are the values? What makes them work? What beliefs do they hold? This helps to cite the publications they read, cite authors they admire.
Remember that lack of subtlety can damage the argument. Learn moderation, active listening, natural restraint. Increased pathos can have the opposite effect, causing people to distance themselves.
Develop emotional intelligence. Be able to adapt.
Learn the logic and clarity of presentation. Respect the audience, avoid professional jargon, stick to simple language. Use examples and comparisons with facts that the audience is already familiar with. Indicate steps and connections in your reasoning. Insist on the most important things.
And of course, continue to study Intercultural Communication with La Classe.