After conducting a comparative analysis of cultures, Hofstede identified five main dimensions of culture. These features must be considered when creating international advertising.
1. The power distance.
The distance of power is the peculiarities of the country's social hierarchy.
For example, in England, the USA, and also in the Scandinavian countries, the hierarchy of service and the infallible authority of older people are much less common than, for example, in Japan. Even in the family, when deciding on large purchases, an Englishwoman usually has the same voting right as a man, and in a Japanese family, the last word always remains with the man.
The situation is even more severe in Muslim countries: in Saudi Arabia, serious (and sometimes ordinary) purchases are made by groups. That is why it is better to focus on the approval of a purchase by someone from an older family member, rather than on personal decisions.
2. Individualism opposed to collectivism.
Individualism is a concern of people only about themselves and the closest members of their family, reliance on their personal qualities, the preference of certain tasks and self-assurance.
The predominance of collectivism is the great importance of relationships with others, plural thinking through the pronoun “We”.
For example, if in a car advertisement for the USA one man can be shown, then for Italy it is better to introduce several more characters into the video.
3. Masculinity VS female dominance.
The dominant values in a society with a high rate of masculinity are achievements and success, professional achievements and the social status of the individual. The role of the sexes is strictly defined.
The dominant values in a society with a high femininity are caring for others and the quality of life, which is more important than status, and people here often show sympathy for a "loser".
For example, in societies with a female dominance, people do not attach much importance to clothing: it is difficult to determine their social status by the clothes of most Scandinavians of any age outside the working day. In France or Belgium, middle-aged people are dressed much more elegantly; by the manner of dressing, an outsider can easily determine what the social situation of a given person is (high rate of masculinity).
If we are going to advertise, for example, in Latin America, we must necessarily take into account the fact that a woman plays a subordinate role in making decisions. The only exception is the purchase of food.
4. Unsertainty index.
Avoiding uncertainty is the degree to which people feel uncertainty and uncertainty and try to avoid such situations.
Representatives of cultures with a high degree of uncertainty avoidance (Greece, Portugal, countries of Eastern Europe) tend to rely on more rules and formalities to organize their lives; these are emotional people of an alarming type who trust experts in all areas of life and avoid conflicts and competition.
In societies with low indicators in the category of avoiding uncertainty (England, America, Scandinavian countries) the rules and laws are reduced to the necessary minimum, there is no desire to avoid competition and openly resolve conflicts.
5. Long-term orientation.
This is the degree to which society focuses on pragmatism in a future-oriented rather than a short-term assessment.
Cultures with a long-term orientation (Asian countries) are primarily distinguished by respect for traditions, peace of mind, unity with nature, spiritual evolution.
At the heart of cultures with a short-term orientation is the achievement of happiness, stability and self-confidence (USA, England).